The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) analysis and the land surface temperature (LST) analysis using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) temperature database. The data is merged into a monthly global surface temperature dataset dating back from 1880 to the present, updated monthly, in gridded (5 degree x 5 degree) and time series formats. This data set is used in climate monitoring assessments of near-surface temperatures on a global scale. The changes from version 3.5.4 to version 4.0.0 include an update to the primary input dataset (ERSST) now at version 4.0.0 and GHCN-Monthly now at version 3.3.0. This dataset is formerly known as Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature (MLOST).