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100+ results found
  1. R

    Data from: Asparagine N-linked glycosylation

    • reactome.org
  2. Data from: Diseases of glycosylation

    • reactome.org
  3. R

    O-linked glycosylation of mucins

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  4. GWAS summary statistics for UPLC IgG N-glycosylation traits

    • datashare.is.ed.ac.uk
    • search.datacite.org
    Published Dec 21, 2018
  5. f

    Centralized Modularity of N-Linked Glycosylation Pathways in Mammalian Cells...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Jan 18, 2016
  6. R

    Diseases associated with O-glycosylation of proteins

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  7. s

    O-GLYCBASE

    • scicrunch.org
  8. f

    Data from: Targeted Mass Spectrometry Approach Enabled Discovery of...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Aug 7, 2017
  9. o

    Glycosylation analysis of TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance

    • www.omicsdi.org
  10. O-linked glycosylation

    • reactome.org
  11. o

    To identify glycosylation-specific targets contributing to the interferon...

    • omictools.com
    • www.omicsdi.org
    • +1more
    Updated Apr 20, 2017
  12. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Roles of N-glycosylation and...

    • thebiogrid.org
  13. f

    Data from: Site-Specific N‑Glycosylation Characterization of Windmill Palm...

    • figshare.com
    Updated May 27, 2016
  14. w

    Effects of Glycosylation on the Structure and Dynamics of Eel Calcitonin in...

    • www.bmrb.wisc.edu
    • bmrb.cerm.unifi.it
    Updated Dec 3, 1999
  15. r

    Acetonitrile in Glycosylation

    • www.researchgate.net
    Published Jan 1, 2004
  16. o

    Data from: The metacaspase Mca1p restricts O-glycosylation during...

    • www.omicsdi.org
    • datamed.org
  17. Dataset pertaining to the publication “Loci Associated with N-Glycosylation...

    • datashare.is.ed.ac.uk
    • search.datacite.org
    Published Apr 12, 2016
  18. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Glycosylation and stabilization of...

    • thebiogrid.org
  19. f

    Identification of a General O-linked Protein Glycosylation System in...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Jan 19, 2016
  20. r

    Data from: Glycosylation of TRPM4 and TRPM5 Channels: Molecular Determinants...

    • www.researchgate.net
    Published Feb 24, 2014
  21. f

    Evolutionary Interactions between N-Linked Glycosylation Sites in the HIV-1...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Jan 18, 2016
  22. o

    Data from: Quantitative Profiling of N-linked Glycosylation Machinery in...

    • www.omicsdi.org
  23. Table_1_Effects of N-Glycosylation on the Structure, Function, and Stability...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Jun 28, 2019
  24. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Structural basis for a human...

    • thebiogrid.org
  25. o

    Proteomics of Campylobacter glycosylation

    • www.omicsdi.org
  26. o

    Elucidating mechanisms by which regulated expression of proteoglycans and...

    • omictools.com
    • www.omicsdi.org
    Updated Mar 23, 2012
  27. a

    ALG12

    • www.alliancegenome.org
    Updated Oct 19, 2019
  28. O-glycosylation of TSR domain-containing proteins

    • reactome.org
  29. o

    Deconstruction of protein O-glycosylation

    • www.omicsdi.org
  30. w

    Effects of Glycosylation on the Structure and Dynamics of Eel Calcitonin

    • www.bmrb.wisc.edu
    • bmrb.cerm.unifi.it
    • +1more
    Updated Jul 13, 2007
  31. o

    The use of the glycoarray chip to investigate VHL-dependent protein...

    • www.omicsdi.org
    • datamed.org
  32. f

    Data from: Evaluation of Different N‑Glycopeptide Enrichment Methods for...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Aug 29, 2016
  33. s

    GlySeq

    • scicrunch.org
  34. w

    truncated AcrA from Campylobacter jejuni for glycosylation studies

    • www.bmrb.wisc.edu
    • bmrb.cerm.unifi.it
    Updated Jun 2, 2010
  35. o

    The role of glycans and glycosylation in cell-type specific effects on viral...

    • omictools.com
    • www.omicsdi.org
    Updated Mar 23, 2012
  36. f

    Identification of seven O-glycosylated proteins with nine unique...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Dec 2, 2015
  37. a

    Data from: Separation and characterization of the two Asn-linked...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Jun 26, 2012
  38. s

    PTMcode

    • scicrunch.org
  39. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Oligosaccharyltransferase subunits...

    • thebiogrid.org
  40. a

    Data from: Glycosylation sites and site-specific glycosylation in human...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Jun 26, 2012
  41. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Overelaborated synaptic architecture...

    • thebiogrid.org
  42. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Disruption of N-linked glycosylation...

    • thebiogrid.org
  43. o

    Data from: Confident Assignment of Site-Specific Glycosylation in Complex...

    • www.openaire.eu
    • figshare.com
    Created Jan 1, 2015
  44. d

    Transcription profiling of human congenital disorders of Glycosylation...

    • datamed.org
    • www.omicsdi.org
  45. f

    Data from: Comprehensive Analysis of Protein N‑Glycosylation Sites by...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Feb 18, 2016
  46. f

    N-glycosylation sites of Phlebotomus tobbi salivary proteins.

    • figshare.com
    Updated Dec 2, 2015
  47. d

    Expression data from Congenital disorders of Glycosylation type-1 patients...

    • datamed.org
  48. a

    Data from: O- and N-glycosylation of the Leishmania mexicana-secreted acid...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Jun 26, 2012
  49. E

    Identification of genes involved in congenital disorders of glycosylation...

    • ega-archive.org
  50. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Pim-1 kinase protects P-glycoprotein...

    • thebiogrid.org
  51. o

    Pilot project to determine optimal bioreactor protein glycosylation...

    • omictools.com
    Updated Sep 5, 2014
  52. d

    Coordinate Regulation of Metabolites Glycosylation and Stress Hormones...

    • datamed.org
    • omictools.com
  53. a

    ALG11

    • www.alliancegenome.org
    Updated Oct 19, 2019
  54. o

    Data from: Detecting Proteins Glycosylation by a Homogeneous Reac-tion...

    • www.omicsdi.org
  55. R

    N-linked glycosylation of WNTs

    • reactome.org
  56. d

    LYPD8_MOUSE

    • datamed.org
  57. o

    Glycosylation of the HA protein of H5N1 virus increases its virulence in...

    • omictools.com
    • www.omicsdi.org
  58. The significance of glycosylation on the function of the calcium-sensing...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Sep 20, 2012
  59. r

    Data from: Expression and purification of non-N-glycosylated porcine...

    • www.researchgate.net
    Published Mar 1, 2012
  60. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: The ALG10 locus of Saccharomyces...

    • thebiogrid.org
  61. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: The yeast LATS/Ndr kinase Cbk1...

    • thebiogrid.org
  62. o

    N-glycosylation of R-spondin1 at Asn137 negatively regulates its secretion...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Apr 1, 2016
  63. o

    A conserved atypical MFS family member orchestrates a subset of...

    • www.omicsdi.org
  64. o

    Data from: Topological N-glycosylation and site-specific N-glycan sulfation...

    • www.omicsdi.org
  65. d

    Deconstruction of O-glycosylation – Polypeptide GalNAc-T Isoforms Direct...

    • datamed.org
    • www.omicsdi.org
    Updated Sep 10, 2015
  66. o

    To understand how glycosylation on human B cells is regulated during...

    • omictools.com
    • datamed.org
    Updated Apr 20, 2017
  67. o

    Molecular mechanisms of missense mutations that generate ectopic...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Mar 6, 2018
  68. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Alg14 recruits Alg13 to the...

    • thebiogrid.org
  69. r

    S3 Fig

    • www.researchgate.net
    Published Jun 9, 2016
  70. o

    Diagnostic accuracy of urinary prostate protein glycosylation profiling in...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Oct 15, 2015
  71. f

    A Knowledge-Based System for Display and Prediction of O-Glycosylation...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Sep 28, 2016
  72. R

    O-linked glycosylation

    • www.reactome.org
  73. o

    N-linked glycosylation of N48 is required for equilibrative nucleoside...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Aug 1, 2016
  74. r

    Data from: Figure S2

    • www.researchgate.net
    Published Jun 10, 2011
  75. t

    BIOGRID CURATED DATA FOR PUBLICATION: Over-expression of S. cerevisiae G1...

    • thebiogrid.org
  76. o

    Data from: Selective removal of alpha heavy-chain glycosylation sites causes...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Oct 1, 1988
  77. d

    To investigate how the glycosylation of podocyte proteins changes during...

    • datamed.org
  78. o

    Data from: Death receptor O-glycosylation controls tumor-cell sensitivity to...

    • omictools.com
    • www.omicsdi.org
    Updated Oct 29, 2018
  79. a

    TMEM165

    • www.alliancegenome.org
    Updated Oct 19, 2019
  80. o

    Data from: O-Glycosylation of Axl2/Bud10p by Pmt4p Is Required for Its...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Jan 1, 1999
  81. o

    Structure and synthesis of polyisoprenoids used in N-glycosylation across...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Apr 5, 2009
  82. d

    Autosomal recessive PGM3 mutations cause a new Congenital Disorder of...

    • datamed.org
  83. r

    Figure S7

    • www.researchgate.net
    Published Mar 16, 2012
  84. o

    Data from: Glycosylation and secretion of human tissue plasminogen activator...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Jan 1, 1989
  85. o

    O-mannose and O-N-acetyl galactosamine glycosylation of mammalian...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Jan 1, 2012
  86. a

    Data from: Drastic differences in glycosylation of related S-layer...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Jun 26, 2012
  87. m

    Sialylation of OprD hinders antibiotic entry

    • data.mendeley.com
    • search.datacite.org
    Updated Sep 28, 2018
  88. f

    GlycoProtDB

    • fairsharing.org
  89. a

    GALNT16

    • www.alliancegenome.org
    Updated Oct 19, 2019
  90. o

    Irani2015 - Genome-scale metabolic model of P.pastoris N-glycosylation

    • www.omicsdi.org
  91. a

    TUSC3

    • www.alliancegenome.org
    Updated Oct 19, 2019
  92. a

    Data from: Glycosylation of mammalian neurofilaments. Localization of...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Jun 26, 2012
  93. o

    Data from: Mutational analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites of the SU...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Jul 1, 1992
  94. R

    Glycosylation of Pre-NOTCH by FRINGE

    • reactome.org
  95. o

    Data from: Deciphering the role of GLUT4 N-glycosylation in adipocyte and...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Jul 15, 2012
  96. a

    ALG10

    • www.alliancegenome.org
    Updated Oct 19, 2019
  97. o

    Glycosylation-related gene expression is linked to differentiation status in...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Dec 15, 2011
  98. a

    Data from: Microheterogeneity of N-glycosylation on a stylar...

    • researchdata.ands.org.au
    Published Jun 26, 2012
  99. o

    Quantitation of O-Glycosylation Stoichiometry and Dynamics using Resolvable...

    • explore.openaire.eu
    Created Jul 1, 2010
  100. f

    Data from: Murine Plasma N‑Glycosylation Traits Associated with Sex and...

    • figshare.com
    Updated Oct 3, 2016
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Data from: Asparagine N-linked glycosylation

Related Article
Authors
Giovanni Dall'Olio
License

Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0)https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
License information was derived automatically

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Description

N-linked glycosylation is the most important form of post-translational modification for proteins synthesized and folded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (Stanley et al. 2009). An early study in 1999 revealed that about 50% of the proteins in the Swiss-Prot database at the time were N-glycosylated (Apweiler et al. 1999). It is now established that the majority of the proteins in the secretory pathway require glycosylation in order to achieve proper folding.
The addition of an N-glycan to a protein can have several roles (Shental-Bechor & Levy 2009). First, glycans enhance the solubility and stability of the proteins in the ER, the golgi and on the outside of the cell membrane, where the composition of the medium is strongly hydrophilic and where proteins, that are mostly hydrophobic, have difficulty folding properly. Second, N-glycans are used as signal molecules during the folding and transport process of the protein: they have the role of labels to determine when a protein must interact with a chaperon, be transported to the golgi, or targeted for degradation in case of major folding defects. Third, and most importantly, N-glycans on completely folded proteins are involved in a wide range of processes: they help determine the specificity of membrane receptors in innate immunity or in cell-to-cell interactions, they can change the properties of hormones and secreted proteins, or of the proteins in the vesicular system inside the cell.
All N-linked glycans are derived from a common 14-sugar oligosaccharide synthesized in the ER, which is attached co-translationally to a protein while this is being translated inside the reticulum. The process of the synthesis of this glycan, known as Synthesis of the N-glycan precursor or LLO, constitutes one of the most conserved pathways in eukaryotes, and has been also observed in some eubacteria. The attachment usually happens on an asparagine residue within the consensus sequence asparagine-X-threonine by an complex called oligosaccharyl transferase (OST).
After being attached to an unfolded protein, the glycan is used as a label molecule in the folding process (also known as Calnexin/Calreticulin cycle) (Lederkremer 2009). The majority of the glycoproteins in the ER require at least one glycosylated residue in order to achieve proper folding, even if it has been shown that a smaller portion of the proteins in the ER can be folded without this modification.
Once the glycoprotein has achieved proper folding, it is transported via the cis-Golgi through all the Golgi compartments, where the glycan is further modified according to the properties of the glycoprotein. This process involves relatively few enzymes but due to its combinatorial nature, can lead to several millions of different possible modifications. The exact topography of this network of reactions has not been established yet, representing one of the major challenges after the sequencing of the human genome (Hossler et al. 2006).
Since N-glycosylation is involved in an great number of different processes, from cell-cell interaction to folding control, mutations in one of the genes involved in glycan assembly and/or modification can lead to severe development problems (often affecting the central nervous system). All the diseases in genes involved in glycosylation are collectively known as Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) (Sparks et al. 2003), and classified as CDG type I for the genes in the LLO synthesis pathway, and CDG type II for the others.

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