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Nephrin (NPHS1) is a member of the Super-IgG-Molecule family and is most prominently expressed in kidney podocytes. It is a major if not the most important structural component of the slit diaphragm, a modified adherens junction inbetween these cells. NPHS1 has an extracellular domain that contains eight distal IgG like domains and one proximal fibronectin type III domain, a transmembrane domain and a short intracellular domain. NPHS1 molecules show both homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Among heterophilic interaction partners, slit diaphragm proteins such as Kin of IRRE-like protein 1 (KIRREL, Nephrin-like protein 1, NEPH1), KIRREL3 (NEPH2) and KIRREL2 (NEPH3) were shown to stabilize the slit diaphragm structure. Intracellularly Podocin (NPHS2), CD2 associated protein (CD2AP) and adherins junction associated proteins like IQGAP, MAGI, CASK and spectrins all interact with NPHS1. Hence it seems to play a major role in organizing the molecular structure of the slit diaphragm itself and via its binding partners links it to the actin cytoskeleton. NPHS1 tyrosine phosphorylation by the Src kinase FYN initiates the PI3K-AKT signaling cascade, which seems to promote antiapoptotic signals.